Protocols & RFCs that have shaped the Internet


File Transfer Protocol

The original specification for the File Transfer Protocol was written by Abhay Bhushan and published as RFC 114 on 16 April 1971. The protocol was later replaced by a TCP/IP version, RFC 765 (June 1980) and RFC 959 (October 1985), the current specification.


User Datagram Protocol

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) was developed for use by application protocols and was designed to be simple and fast.


Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol was designed for use in interconnected systems of packet-switched computer communication networks. The internet protocol can capitalize on the services of its supporting networks to provide various types and qualities of service.


Internet Control Message Protocol

The fundamental purpose of the ICMP protocol was to report problems with the delivery of IP datagrams. The protocol, frequently used by internet managers to verify correct operations of End Systems (ES), checks that routers are correctly routing packets to the specified destination address.

Transmission Control Protocol

TCP is a connection-oriented, end-to-end reliable protocol designed to fit into a layered hierarchy of protocols which support multi-network applications. The TCP provides for reliable inter-process communication between pairs of processes in host computers attached to distinct but interconnected computer communication networks.


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SMTP is a process that can transfer mail to another process on the same network or to some other network via a relay or gateway process accessible to both networks. In this way, a mail message may pass through a number of intermediate relay or gateway hosts on its path from sender to ultimate recipient.

Address Resolution Protocol

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a telecommunication protocol used for resolution of network layer addresses into link layer addresses, a critical function in multiple-access networks. ARP is used to convert an IP address to a physical address such as an Ethernet address (also known as a MAC address). ARP has been implemented with many combinations of network and data link layer technologies


Post Office Protocol

The introduction of the Post Office Protocol was intended to permit a workstation to dynamically access a maildrop on a server host in a useful fashion. This means that the POP3 protocol is used to allow a workstation to retrieve mail that the server is holding for it.


Internet Group Management Protocol

The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used by IP hosts to report their multicast group memberships to any immediately neighbouring multicast routers. It is required to be implemented by all hosts wishing to receive IP multicasts.


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a framework for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCPIP network. This means that it provides a host with an IP Address when it connects to a network.


Internet Protocol version 6

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest version of the Internet Protocol, the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4.


HyperText Transfer Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.